If you have the Symbolic Toolbox, then
f = @(x) exp(x-2)*log(x)
temp = f(x);
op0 = feval(symengine, 'op', temp, 0)
rest = children(temp)
rest0 = arrayfun(@children, rest, 'uniform', 0)
and so on, taking op 0 and children each time. op 0 will be things like _mult and _plus for * and + (and subtraction -- subtraction is _plus of negative of the value).
With a little work, you could create a routine that broke expressions down into nested cell arrays or into nested struct.
This is not a nice interface, but it is all that is availabe in the symbolic toolbox in any released version.