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Classification loss for observations not used in training



L = kfoldLoss(CVMdl) returns the cross-validated classification losses obtained by the cross-validated, binary, linear classification model CVMdl. That is, for every fold, kfoldLoss estimates the classification loss for observations that it holds out when it trains using all other observations.

L contains a classification loss for each regularization strength in the linear classification models that compose CVMdl.


L = kfoldLoss(CVMdl,Name,Value) uses additional options specified by one or more Name,Value pair arguments. For example, indicate which folds to use for the loss calculation or specify the classification-loss function.

Input Arguments

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Cross-validated, binary, linear classification model, specified as a ClassificationPartitionedLinear model object. You can create a ClassificationPartitionedLinear model using fitclinear and specifying any one of the cross-validation, name-value pair arguments, for example, CrossVal.

To obtain estimates, kfoldLoss applies the same data used to cross-validate the linear classification model (X and Y).

Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

Fold indices to use for classification-score prediction, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Folds' and a numeric vector of positive integers. The elements of Folds must range from 1 through CVMdl.KFold.

Example: 'Folds',[1 4 10]

Data Types: single | double

Loss function, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'LossFun' and a built-in, loss-function name or function handle.

  • The following table lists the available loss functions. Specify one using its corresponding character vector or string scalar.

    'binodeviance'Binomial deviance
    'classiferror'Misclassified rate in decimal
    'exponential'Exponential loss
    'hinge'Hinge loss
    'logit'Logistic loss
    'mincost'Minimal expected misclassification cost (for classification scores that are posterior probabilities)
    'quadratic'Quadratic loss

    'mincost' is appropriate for classification scores that are posterior probabilities. For linear classification models, logistic regression learners return posterior probabilities as classification scores by default, but SVM learners do not (see predict).

  • Specify your own function using function handle notation.

    Let n be the number of observations in X and K be the number of distinct classes (numel(Mdl.ClassNames), Mdl is the input model). Your function must have this signature

    lossvalue = lossfun(C,S,W,Cost)

    • The output argument lossvalue is a scalar.

    • You choose the function name (lossfun).

    • C is an n-by-K logical matrix with rows indicating which class the corresponding observation belongs. The column order corresponds to the class order in Mdl.ClassNames.

      Construct C by setting C(p,q) = 1 if observation p is in class q, for each row. Set all other elements of row p to 0.

    • S is an n-by-K numeric matrix of classification scores. The column order corresponds to the class order in Mdl.ClassNames. S is a matrix of classification scores, similar to the output of predict.

    • W is an n-by-1 numeric vector of observation weights. If you pass W, the software normalizes them to sum to 1.

    • Cost is a K-by-K numeric matrix of misclassification costs. For example, Cost = ones(K) - eye(K) specifies a cost of 0 for correct classification, and 1 for misclassification.

    Specify your function using 'LossFun',@lossfun.

Data Types: char | string | function_handle

Loss aggregation level, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Mode' and 'average' or 'individual'.

'average'Returns losses averaged over all folds
'individual'Returns losses for each fold

Example: 'Mode','individual'

Output Arguments

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Cross-validated classification losses, returned as a numeric scalar, vector, or matrix. The interpretation of L depends on LossFun.

Let R be the number of regularizations strengths is the cross-validated models (stored in numel(CVMdl.Trained{1}.Lambda)) and F be the number of folds (stored in CVMdl.KFold).

  • If Mode is 'average', then L is a 1-by-R vector. L(j) is the average classification loss over all folds of the cross-validated model that uses regularization strength j.

  • Otherwise, L is an F-by-R matrix. L(i,j) is the classification loss for fold i of the cross-validated model that uses regularization strength j.

To estimate L, kfoldLoss uses the data that created CVMdl (see X and Y).


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Load the NLP data set.

load nlpdata

X is a sparse matrix of predictor data, and Y is a categorical vector of class labels. There are more than two classes in the data.

The models should identify whether the word counts in a web page are from the Statistics and Machine Learning Toolbox™ documentation. So, identify the labels that correspond to the Statistics and Machine Learning Toolbox™ documentation web pages.

Ystats = Y == 'stats';

Cross-validate a binary, linear classification model that can identify whether the word counts in a documentation web page are from the Statistics and Machine Learning Toolbox™ documentation.

rng(1); % For reproducibility 
CVMdl = fitclinear(X,Ystats,'CrossVal','on');

CVMdl is a ClassificationPartitionedLinear model. By default, the software implements 10-fold cross validation. You can alter the number of folds using the 'KFold' name-value pair argument.

Estimate the average of the out-of-fold, classification error rates.

ce = kfoldLoss(CVMdl)
ce = 7.6017e-04

Alternatively, you can obtain the per-fold classification error rates by specifying the name-value pair 'Mode','individual' in kfoldLoss.

Load the NLP data set. Preprocess the data as in Estimate k-Fold Cross-Validation Classification Error, and transpose the predictor data.

load nlpdata
Ystats = Y == 'stats';
X = X';

Cross-validate a binary, linear classification model using 5-fold cross-validation. Optimize the objective function using SpaRSA. Specify that the predictor observations correspond to columns.

rng(1); % For reproducibility 
CVMdl = fitclinear(X,Ystats,'Solver','sparsa','KFold',5,...
CMdl = CVMdl.Trained{1};

CVMdl is a ClassificationPartitionedLinear model. It contains the property Trained, which is a 5-by-1 cell array holding a ClassificationLinear models that the software trained using the training set of each fold.

Create an anonymous function that measures linear loss, that is,


wj is the weight for observation j, y_j is response j (-1 for the negative class, and 1 otherwise), and f_j is the raw classification score of observation j. Custom loss functions must be written in a particular form. For rules on writing a custom loss function, see the LossFun name-value pair argument. Because the function does not use classification cost, use ~ to have kfoldLoss ignore its position.

linearloss = @(C,S,W,~)sum(-W.*sum(S.*C,2))/sum(W);

Estimate the average cross-validated classification loss using the linear loss function. Also, obtain the loss for each fold.

ce = kfoldLoss(CVMdl,'LossFun',linearloss)
ce = -8.0982
ceFold = kfoldLoss(CVMdl,'LossFun',linearloss,'Mode','individual')
ceFold = 5×1


To determine a good lasso-penalty strength for a linear classification model that uses a logistic regression learner, compare test-sample classification error rates.

Load the NLP data set. Preprocess the data as in Specify Custom Classification Loss.

load nlpdata
Ystats = Y == 'stats';
X = X';

Create a set of 11 logarithmically-spaced regularization strengths from 10-6 through 100.5.

Lambda = logspace(-6,-0.5,11);

Cross-validate binary, linear classification models using 5-fold cross-validation, and that use each of the regularization strengths. Optimize the objective function using SpaRSA. Lower the tolerance on the gradient of the objective function to 1e-8.

rng(10); % For reproducibility
CVMdl = fitclinear(X,Ystats,'ObservationsIn','columns',...
CVMdl = 
    CrossValidatedModel: 'Linear'
           ResponseName: 'Y'
        NumObservations: 31572
                  KFold: 5
              Partition: [1x1 cvpartition]
             ClassNames: [0 1]
         ScoreTransform: 'none'

  Properties, Methods

Extract a trained linear classification model.

Mdl1 = CVMdl.Trained{1}
Mdl1 = 
      ResponseName: 'Y'
        ClassNames: [0 1]
    ScoreTransform: 'logit'
              Beta: [34023x11 double]
              Bias: [1x11 double]
            Lambda: [1x11 double]
           Learner: 'logistic'

  Properties, Methods

Mdl1 is a ClassificationLinear model object. Because Lambda is a sequence of regularization strengths, you can think of Mdl as 11 models, one for each regularization strength in Lambda.

Estimate the cross-validated classification error.

ce = kfoldLoss(CVMdl);

Because there are 11 regularization strengths, ce is a 1-by-11 vector of classification error rates.

Higher values of Lambda lead to predictor variable sparsity, which is a good quality of a classifier. For each regularization strength, train a linear classification model using the entire data set and the same options as when you cross-validated the models. Determine the number of nonzero coefficients per model.

Mdl = fitclinear(X,Ystats,'ObservationsIn','columns',...
numNZCoeff = sum(Mdl.Beta~=0);

In the same figure, plot the cross-validated, classification error rates and frequency of nonzero coefficients for each regularization strength. Plot all variables on the log scale.

[h,hL1,hL2] = plotyy(log10(Lambda),log10(ce),...
hL1.Marker = 'o';
hL2.Marker = 'o';
ylabel(h(1),'log_{10} classification error')
ylabel(h(2),'log_{10} nonzero-coefficient frequency')
xlabel('log_{10} Lambda')
title('Test-Sample Statistics')
hold off

Figure contains 2 axes. Axes 1 with title Test-Sample Statistics contains an object of type line. Axes 2 contains an object of type line.

Choose the indexes of the regularization strength that balances predictor variable sparsity and low classification error. In this case, a value between 10-4 to 10-1 should suffice.

idxFinal = 7;

Select the model from Mdl with the chosen regularization strength.

MdlFinal = selectModels(Mdl,idxFinal);

MdlFinal is a ClassificationLinear model containing one regularization strength. To estimate labels for new observations, pass MdlFinal and the new data to predict.

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Introduced in R2016a