# gammainc

Incomplete gamma function

## Syntax

``Y = gammainc(X,A)``
``Y = gammainc(X,A,type)``
``Y = gammainc(X,A,scale)``

## Description

example

````Y = gammainc(X,A)` returns the lower incomplete gamma function evaluated at the elements of `X` and `A`. Both `X` and `A` must be real, and `A` must be nonnegative.```

example

````Y = gammainc(X,A,type)` returns the lower or upper incomplete gamma function. The choices for `type` are `'lower'` (the default) and `'upper'`.```

example

````Y = gammainc(X,A,scale)` scales the resulting lower or upper incomplete gamma function to avoid underflow to zero or loss of accuracy. The choices for `scale` are `'scaledlower'` and `'scaledupper'`. ```

## Examples

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Calculate the lower incomplete gamma function for $a$ = 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 within the interval $0\le x\le 10$. Loop over values of $a$, evaluate the function at each one, and assign each result to a column of `Y`.

```A = [0.5 1 1.5 2]; X = 0:0.05:10; Y = zeros(201,4); for i = 1:4 Y(:,i) = gammainc(X,A(i)); end```

Plot all of the functions in the same figure.

```plot(X,Y) grid on legend('\$a = 0.5\$','\$a = 1\$','\$a = 1.5\$','\$a = 2\$','interpreter','latex') title('Lower incomplete gamma function for \$a = 0.5, 1, 1.5,\$ and \$2\$','interpreter','latex') xlabel('\$x\$','interpreter','latex') ylabel('\$P(x,a)\$','interpreter','latex')``` Calculate the upper incomplete gamma function for $a$ = 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 within the interval $0\le x\le 10$. Loop over values of $a$, evaluate the function at each one, and assign each result to a column of `Y`.

```A = [0.5 1 1.5 2]; X = 0:0.05:10; Y = zeros(201,4); for i = 1:4 Y(:,i) = gammainc(X,A(i),'upper'); end```

Plot all of the functions in the same figure.

```plot(X,Y) grid on legend('\$a = 0.5\$','\$a = 1\$','\$a = 1.5\$','\$a = 2\$','interpreter','latex'); title('Upper incomplete gamma function for \$a = 0.5, 1, 1.5,\$ and \$2\$','interpreter','latex') xlabel('\$x\$','interpreter','latex') ylabel('\$Q(x,a)\$','interpreter','latex')``` Calculate the unscaled lower incomplete gamma function and compare it to the scaled function.

Calculate the unscaled lower incomplete gamma function for $a=1$ within the interval $0\le x\le 2$. Plot the function.

```a = 1; x = 0:0.001:2; Y = gammainc(x,a); plot(x,Y); xlabel('\$x\$','interpreter','latex'); ylabel('\$P(x,1)\$','interpreter','latex') hold on```

Next, calculate the scaled lower incomplete gamma function. Plot the function on the same graph. The scaled function has different asymptotic behavior near 0, which avoids underflow when $x$ is close to 0.

```Ys = gammainc(x,a,'scaledlower'); plot(x,Ys,'--'); legend('unscaled','scaled')``` ## Input Arguments

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Input array, specified as a scalar, vector, matrix, or multidimensional array. The elements of `X` must be real. `X` and `A` must be the same size, or else one of them must be a scalar.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

Input array, specified as a scalar, vector, matrix, or multidimensional array. The elements of `A` must be real and nonnegative. `X` and `A` must be the same size, or else one of them must be a scalar.

Data Types: `single` | `double`

Type of incomplete gamma function, specified as `'lower'` or `'upper'`. If `type` is `'lower'`, then `gammainc` returns the lower incomplete gamma function. If `type` is `'upper'`, then `gammainc` returns the upper incomplete gamma function.

Scaling option, specified as `'scaledlower'` or `'scaledupper'`. If `scale` is `'scaledlower'` or `'scaledupper'`, then `gammainc` scales the lower or upper incomplete gamma function by a factor of $\Gamma \left(a+1\right){e}^{x}/{x}^{a}$, where $\Gamma \left(a\right)$ is the `gamma` function. This scaling cancels out the asymptotic behavior of the function near 0, which avoids underflow with small arguments.

## Limitations

• When x is negative, the incomplete gamma function can be inaccurate for abs(x) > a+1.

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### Incomplete Gamma Function

The lower incomplete gamma function P and the upper incomplete gamma function Q are defined by

`$\begin{array}{l}P\left(x,a\right)=\frac{1}{\Gamma \left(a\right)}{\int }_{0}^{x}{t}^{a-1}{e}^{-t}dt,\\ Q\left(x,a\right)=\frac{1}{\Gamma \left(a\right)}{\int }_{x}^{\infty }{t}^{a-1}{e}^{-t}dt.\end{array}$`

The gamma function $\Gamma \left(a\right)$ is defined by

`$\Gamma \left(a\right)={\int }_{0}^{\infty }{t}^{a-1}{e}^{-t}dt.$`

MATLAB® uses the normalized definition of the incomplete gamma function, where $P\left(x,a\right)+Q\left(x,a\right)=1$.

The scaled lower and upper incomplete gamma function are defined by

`$\begin{array}{l}{P}_{s}\left(x,a\right)=\frac{\Gamma \left(a+1\right)}{\Gamma \left(a\right)}\frac{{e}^{x}}{{x}^{a}}{\int }_{0}^{x}{t}^{a-1}{e}^{-t}dt,\\ {Q}_{s}\left(x,a\right)=\frac{\Gamma \left(a+1\right)}{\Gamma \left(a\right)}\frac{{e}^{x}}{{x}^{a}}{\int }_{x}^{\infty }{t}^{a-1}{e}^{-t}dt.\end{array}$`

Some properties of the lower incomplete gamma function are:

• $\underset{x\to \infty }{\mathrm{lim}}P\left(x,a\right)=1\text{ }\text{for}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}a\ge 0$

• $\underset{x,a\to 0}{\mathrm{lim}}P\left(x,a\right)=1$

## Tips

• When the upper incomplete gamma function is close to 0, specifying the `'upper'` option to calculate the function is more accurate than subtracting the lower incomplete gamma function from 1.

 Olver, F. W. J., A. B. Olde Daalhuis, D. W. Lozier, B. I. Schneider, R. F. Boisvert, C. W. Clark, B. R. Miller, and B. V. Saunders, eds., Chapter 8. Incomplete Gamma and Related Functions, NIST Digital Library of Mathematical Functions, Release 1.0.22, Mar. 15, 2018.