# Translational Hard Stop

Double-sided translational hard stop

• Library:
• Simscape / Foundation Library / Mechanical / Translational Elements

## Description

The Translational Hard Stop block represents a double-sided mechanical translational hard stop that restricts motion of a body between upper and lower bounds. The impact interaction between the slider and the stops is assumed to be elastic. This means that the stop is represented as a spring that comes into contact with the slider as the gap is cleared and opposes slider penetration into the stop with the force linearly proportional to this penetration. To account for energy dissipation and nonelastic effects, damping is introduced as the block’s parameter, thus making it possible to account for energy loss. The schematic shows the idealization of the mechanical translational hard stop adopted in the block.

The basic hard stop model, ```Full stiffness and damping applied at bounds, damped rebound```, is described with the following equations:

`$v=\frac{dx}{dt}$`

where

• F is interaction force between the slider and the case.

• gp is the initial gap between the slider and upper bound.

• gn is the initial gap between the slider and lower bound.

• x is the slider position.

• Kp is contact stiffness at upper bound.

• Kn is contact stiffness at lower bound.

• Dp is damping coefficient at upper bound.

• Dn is damping coefficient at lower bound.

• v is the slider velocity.

• t is time.

In the ```Full stiffness and damping applied at bounds, undamped rebound``` hard stop model, equations contain additional terms, `ge`(v,0) and `le`(v,0). These terms ensure that damping is not applied on the rebound.

Relational functions `ge` (greater or equal) and `le` (less or equal) do not generate zero crossings when velocity changes sign. For more information, see Enabling and Disabling Zero-Crossing Conditions in Simscape Language. However, the solver treats `ge` and `le` functions as nonlinear. Therefore, if `simscape.findNonlinearBlocks` indicates that the rest of your network is linear or switched linear, use the ```Full stiffness and damping applied at bounds, damped rebound``` model to improve performance.

The default hard stop model, ```Stiffness and damping applied smoothly through transition region, damped rebound```, adds two transitional regions to the equations, one at each bound. While the slider travels through a transition region, the block smoothly ramps up the force from zero to the full value. At the end of the transition region, the full stiffness and damping are applied. On the rebound, both stiffness and damping forces are smoothly decreased back to zero. These equations also use the `ge` and `le` relational functions, which do not produce zero crossings.

The block is oriented from R to C. This means that the block transmits force from port R to port C when the gap is closed in the positive direction.

### Variables

To set the priority and initial target values for the block variables prior to simulation, use the Variables tab in the block dialog box (or the Variables section in the block Property Inspector). For more information, see Set Priority and Initial Target for Block Variables.

## Ports

### Conserving

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Mechanical translational conserving port associated with the slider that travels between stops installed on the case.

Mechanical translational conserving port associated with the case.

## Parameters

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Gap between the slider and the upper bound. The direction is specified with respect to the local coordinate system, with the slider located in the origin. A positive value of the parameter specifies the gap between the slider and the upper bound. A negative value sets the slider as penetrating into the upper bound.

Gap between the slider and the lower bound. The direction is specified with respect to the local coordinate system, with the slider located in the origin. A negative value of the parameter specifies the gap between the slider and the lower bound. A positive value sets the slider as penetrating into the lower bound.

This parameter specifies the elastic property of colliding bodies when the slider hits the upper bound. The greater the value of the parameter, the less the bodies penetrate into each other, the more rigid the impact becomes. Lesser value of the parameter makes contact softer, but generally improves convergence and computational efficiency.

This parameter specifies the elastic property of colliding bodies when the slider hits the upper bound. The greater the value of the parameter, the less the bodies penetrate into each other, the more rigid the impact becomes. Lesser value of the parameter makes contact softer, but generally improves convergence and computational efficiency.

This parameter specifies dissipating property of colliding bodies when the slider hits the upper bound. The greater the value of the parameter, the more energy dissipates during an interaction.

This parameter specifies dissipating property of colliding bodies when the slider hits the lower bound. The greater the value of the parameter, the more energy dissipates during an interaction.

Select the hard stop model:

• ```Stiffness and damping applied smoothly through transition region, damped rebound``` — Specify a transition region, in which the force is scaled from zero. At the end of the transition region, the full stiffness and damping are applied. This model has damping applied on the rebound, but it is limited to the value of the stiffness force. In this sense, damping can reduce or eliminate the force provided by the stiffness, but never exceed it. All equations are smooth and produce no zero crossings.

• ```Full stiffness and damping applied at bounds, undamped rebound``` — This model has full stiffness and damping applied with impact at upper and lower bounds, with no damping on the rebound. Equations produce no zero crossings when velocity changes sign, but there is a position-based zero crossing at the bounds. Having no damping on rebound helps to push the slider past this position quickly. This model has nonlinear equations.

• ```Full stiffness and damping applied at bounds, damped rebound``` — This model has full stiffness and damping applied with impact at upper and lower bounds, with damping applied on the rebound as well. Equations are switched linear, but produce position-based zero crossings. Use this hard stop model if `simscape.findNonlinearBlocks` indicates that this is the block that prevents the whole network from being switched linear.

Region where the force is ramped up from zero to the full value. At the end of the transition region, the full stiffness and damping are applied.

#### Dependencies

Enabled when the Hard stop model parameter is set to ```Stiffness and damping applied smoothly through transition region, damped rebound```.