# hittime

## Syntax

## Description

## Examples

### Return Expected First Hitting Times

Consider this theoretical, right-stochastic transition matrix of a stochastic process.

$$P=\left[\begin{array}{cccc}1& 0& 0& 0\\ 1/2& 0& 1/2& 0\\ 0& 0& 0& 1\\ 0& 0& 1/2& 1/2\end{array}\right].$$

Create the Markov chain that is characterized by the transition matrix *P*.

P = [1 0 0 0; 1/2 0 1/2 0; 0 0 0 1; 0 0 1/2 1/2]; mc = dtmc(P);

Plot a directed graph of the Markov chain. Visually identify the communicating class to which each state belongs by using node colors.

```
figure;
graphplot(mc,'ColorNodes',true);
```

Compute the expected first hitting time for state 3, beginning from each state in the Markov chain.

ht = hittime(mc,3)

`ht = `*4×1*
Inf
Inf
0
2

Because state 3 is unreachable from state 1, state 1 is a remote state with respect to state 3, with an expected first hitting time of `Inf`

.

State 3 is reachable from state 2, but state 2 has a positive probability of transitioning to state 1, which is an absorbing state. Therefore, state 2 is a remote-reachable state with respect to state 3, with an expected first hitting time of `Inf`

.

Because state 3 is the target, its expected first hitting time for itself is `0`

.

The expected first hitting time for state 3 starting from state 4 is `2`

time steps.

### Color Nodes of Digraph Using Expected First Hitting Times

Consider this theoretical, right-stochastic transition matrix of a stochastic process.

$$P=\left[\begin{array}{cccc}0& 1/2& 0& 1/2\\ 2/3& 0& 1/3& 0\\ 0& 1/2& 0& 1/2\\ 1/3& 0& 2/3& 0\end{array}\right].$$

Create the Markov chain that is characterized by the transition matrix *P*.

P = [0 1/2 0 1/2 2/3 0 1/3 0 0 1/2 0 1/2 1/3 0 2/3 0 ]; mc = dtmc(P);

Plot a digraph of the Markov chain `mc`

. Display the transition probabilities.

`graphplot(mc,'ColorEdges',true)`

Compute the expected first hitting time for state 1, beginning from each state in the Markov chain.

ht = hittime(mc,1)

`ht = `*4×1*
0
2.3333
4.0000
3.6667

Plot a digraph of the Markov chain. Specify node colors representing the expected first hitting times for state 1, beginning from each state in the Markov chain.

`hittime(mc,1,'Graph',true);`

Plot another digraph. Include state 4 as a target state.

`hittime(mc,[1 4],'Graph',true);`

Create the Markov chain characterized by this transition matrix:

$$P=\left[\begin{array}{ccccccc}1/2& 0& 1/2& 0& 0& 0& 0\\ 0& 1/3& 0& 2/3& 0& 0& 0\\ 1/4& 0& 3/4& 0& 0& 0& 0\\ 0& 2/3& 0& 1/3& 0& 0& 0\\ 1/4& 1/8& 1/8& 1/8& 1/4& 1/8& 0\\ 1/6& 1/6& 1/6& 1/6& 1/6& 1/6& 0\\ 1/2& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 1/2\end{array}\right].$$

P = [1/2 0 1/2 0 0 0 0 0 1/3 0 2/3 0 0 0 1/4 0 3/4 0 0 0 0 0 2/3 0 1/3 0 0 0 1/4 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/4 1/8 0 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 1/6 0 1/2 0 0 0 0 0 1/2]; mc = dtmc(P);

Compute the expected first hitting times for state 1, beginning from each state in the Markov chain `mc`

. Also, plot a digraph and specify node colors representing the expected first hitting times for state 1.

`ht = hittime(mc,1,'Graph',true)`

`ht = `*7×1*
0
Inf
4
Inf
Inf
Inf
2

States 2 and 4 form an absorbing class. Therefore, state 1 is unreachable from these states. The absorbing class is remote with respect to state 1, with an expected first hitting time of `Inf`

.

State 1 is reachable from states 5 and 6, but the probability of transitioning into the absorbing class from states 5 and 6 is nonzero. Therefore, states 5 and 6 are remote-reachable with respect to state 1, with an expected first hitting time of `Inf`

.

The expected first hitting time for state 1 beginning from state 7 is 2 time steps. The expected first hitting time for state 1 beginning from state 3 is 4 time steps.

### Compute Expected Absorption Times

Create an eight-state Markov chain from a randomly generated transition matrix with 50 infeasible transitions in random locations. An *infeasible transition* is a transition whose probability of occurring is zero. Assign arbitrary names to the states.

numStates = 8; Zeros = 50; stateNames = strcat(repmat("Regime ",1,8),string(1:8)); rng(1617676169) % For reproducibility mc = mcmix(8,'Zeros',Zeros,'StateNames',stateNames);

Plot a digraph of the Markov chain `mc`

. Specify node colors that identify transient and recurrent states and communicating classes.

```
figure;
graphplot(mc,'ColorNodes',true);
```

Find a recurrent class in the Markov chain `mc`

by following this procedure:

Classify the states by passing

`mc`

to`classify`

. Return the array of class memberships`ClassStates`

and the logical vector specifying whether the classes are recurrent`ClassRecurrence`

.Extract the recurrent classes from the array of classes by indexing into the array using the logical vector.

[~,ClassStates,IsClassRecurrent] = classify(mc); recurrent = ClassStates{IsClassRecurrent}

`recurrent = `*1x4 string*
"Regime 2" "Regime 3" "Regime 6" "Regime 8"

Compute the expected hitting time for the states of the recurrent class, beginning from each state in the Markov chain.

ht = hittime(mc,recurrent);

Extract and display the expected absorption times beginning from the transient states.

```
istransient = ~ismember(mc.StateNames,recurrent);
absorbtime = ht(istransient);
table(absorbtime,'RowNames',mc.StateNames(istransient))
```

`ans=`*4×1 table*
absorbtime
__________
Regime 1 5.8929
Regime 4 1
Regime 5 1.7777
Regime 7 4.8929

### Visualize Markov Chain Mixing Time

Create a 50-state Markov chain from a random transition matrix in which most of the transitions are infeasible and randomly placed.

rng(1) % For reproducibility mc = mcmix(50,'Zeros',2400);

Visualize the mixing time of the Markov chain by plotting a digraph and specifying node colors representing the expected first hitting times for state 1, beginning from each state.

`hittime(mc,1,'Graph',true);`

Visualize the mixing time of the Markov chain for state 5.

`hittime(mc,5,'Graph',true);`

### Compute Expected Commute Time

The *expected commute time* from state $\mathit{i}$ to state $\mathit{j}$ is the expected time required for a Markov chain to transition from state $\mathit{i}$ to state $\mathit{j}$ (the expected first hitting time `ht`

$\left(\mathit{i},\mathit{j}\right)$), then back to state $\mathit{i}$ (`ht`

$\left(\mathit{j},\mathit{i}\right)$). Formally, the expected commute time is

$\mathit{C}\left(\mathit{i},\mathit{j}\right)=$`ht`

$\left(\mathit{i},\mathit{j}\right)+\text{\hspace{0.17em}}$`ht`

$\left(\mathit{j},\mathit{i}\right)$.

Create a "dumbbell" Markov chain containing 10 states in each "weight" and three states in the "bar."

Specify random transition probabilities between states within each weight.

If the Markov chain reaches the state in a weight that is closest to the bar, then specify a high probability of transitioning to the bar.

Specify uniform transitions between states in the bar.

rng(1); % For reproducibility w = 5; % Dumbbell weights DBar = [0 1 0; 1 0 1; 0 1 0]; % Dumbbell bar DB = blkdiag(rand(w),DBar,rand(w)); % Transition matrix % Connect dumbbell weights and bar DB(w,w+1) = 1; DB(w+1,w) = 1; DB(w+3,w+4) = 1; DB(w+4,w+3) = 1; mc = dtmc(DB);

Plot a digraph of the Markov chain `mc`

. Suppress node labels.

figure; graphplot(mc);

Consider computing the expected commute time from state 1 to state 10.

Compute `ht`

(1,10), the expected first hitting time for state 10 beginning from state 1.

ht = hittime(mc,10); ht1to10 = ht(1);

Compute `ht`

(10,1), the expected first hitting time for state 1 beginning from state 10.

ht = hittime(mc,1); ht10to1 = ht(10);

Compute the expected commute time from state 1 to state 10.

C1to10 = ht1to10 + ht10to1

C1to10 = 236.6165

The expected commute time from state 1 to state 10 and back is 236.62 time steps.

## Input Arguments

`mc`

— Discrete-time Markov chain

`dtmc`

object

Discrete-time Markov chain with `NumStates`

states and transition matrix `P`

, specified as a `dtmc`

object. `P`

must be fully specified (no `NaN`

entries).

`target`

— Target subset of states

numeric vector of positive integers | string vector | cell vector of character vectors

Target subset of states, specified as a numeric vector of positive integers, string vector, or cell vector of character vectors.

For a numeric vector, elements of

`target`

correspond to rows of the transition matrix`mc.P`

.For a string vector or cell vector of character vectors, elements of

`target`

must be state names in`mc.StateNames`

.

**Example: **`["Regime 1" "Regime 2"]`

**Data Types: **`double`

| `string`

| `cell`

`ax`

— Axes on which to plot

`Axes`

object

Axes on which to plot, specified as an `Axes`

object.

By default, `hittime`

plots to the current axes
(`gca`

).

## Output Arguments

`ht`

— Expected first hitting times

numeric vector

Expected first hitting times, returned as a numeric vector of length `mc.NumStates`

. `ht(`

is the expected first hitting time of the specified subset of the target states * j*)

`target`

from starting state `j`

.If `ht(`

= * j*)

`Inf`

, state `j`

is a remote state or remote-reachable state for the target states `target`

.`h`

— Handle to graph plot

graphics object

Handle to the graph plot, returned as a graphics object when the `'Graph'`

name-value pair argument is `true`

. `h`

is a unique identifier, which you can use to query or modify properties of the plot.

## More About

### Remote State

*Remote states* are those states from which the target states are unreachable. A remote state has a hitting probability of `0`

and an expected first hitting time of `Inf`

. For more details on hitting probabilities, see `hitprob`

.

### Remote-Reachable State

*Remote-reachable states* are those states from which the target states are reachable and that have a positive probability of reaching an absorbing class. A remote-reachable state has an expected first hitting time of `Inf`

for the target states.

## Algorithms

`hittime`

uses `linprog`

to find the minimum norm nonnegative solution to the system:

$$\{\begin{array}{cc}{k}_{i}^{A}=0& ,i\in A\\ {k}_{i}^{A}=1+{\displaystyle \sum _{j\notin A}^{}{P}_{ij}{k}_{j}^{A}}& ,i\notin A,\end{array}$$

where

## References

[1]
Norris, J. R. *Markov Chains.* Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

## Version History

**Introduced in R2019b**

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