Gas-Charged Accumulator (IL)
Accumulator with gas as compressible medium in an isothermal liquid system
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The Gas-Charged Accumulator (IL) block models a gas-charged accumulator in an isothermal liquid network. The accumulator consists of a precharged gas chamber and a liquid chamber. The chambers are separated by a bladder, a piston, or any kind of a diaphragm.
As the liquid pressure at the accumulator inlet becomes greater than the precharge pressure, liquid enters the accumulator and compresses the gas through a polytropic process. A decrease in the liquid pressure causes the gas to decompress and discharge stored liquid into the system. The separator motion is restricted by a hard stop when the liquid volume is zero and when the liquid volume is at the liquid chamber capacity. The liquid chamber capacity is the total accumulator volume minus the minimum gas volume.
Inlet liquid resistance, and separator properties such as inertia and damping are not modeled. The flow rate is positive if liquid flows into the accumulator.
This diagram represents a gas-charged accumulator. The total accumulator volume,
VT, is divided into the liquid chamber
on the left and the gas chamber on the right by the vertical separator. The distance
between the left side and the separator defines the liquid volume,
VL. The distance between the right
side and the separator defines the gas volume,
VG. The liquid chamber capacity,
VC, is less than the total accumulator
volume, so that the gas volume never becomes zero:
VT is the total volume of the accumulator, including the liquid chamber and the gas chamber.
VL is the volume of the liquid in the accumulator.
VG is the volume of the gas in the accumulator.
VC is the liquid chamber capacity (
Vdead is the gas chamber dead volume, a small portion of the gas chamber that remains filled with gas when the liquid chamber is at capacity.
The hard stop contact pressure is modeled with a stiffness term and a damping term. The relationship of the gas pressure and gas volume between the current state and the precharge state is polytropic and pressure is balanced at the separator:
pG is the gas pressure in the gas chamber.
ppr is the pressure in the gas chamber when the liquid chamber is empty
ksh is the specific heat ratio (adiabatic index).
Conservation of Mass
Conservation of mass is represented by the following equation.
pI is the liquid pressure in the liquid chamber, which is equal to the pressure at the accumulator inlet.
A is the mass flow rate of liquid coming into port A.
ρI is the density of the liquid in the liquid chamber.
where Kstiff is the hard-stop stiffness coefficient.
Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of momentum is represented by:
where pHS is the hard-stop contact pressure.
Use the Variables tab to set the priority and initial target values for the block variables prior to simulation. For more information, see Set Priority and Initial Target for Block Variables.
A — Liquid port
Isothermal liquid port associated with the accumulator inlet. The flow rate is positive if liquid flows into the accumulator.
Total accumulator volume — Accumulator volume
8e-3 m^3 (default) | positive scalar
Total volume of the accumulator, including the liquid chamber and the gas chamber. It is the sum of the liquid chamber capacity and the minimum gas volume.
Minimum gas volume — Gas chamber dead volume
4e-5 m^3 (default) | positive scalar
Gas chamber dead volume, which is defined as a small portion of the gas chamber that remains filled with gas when the liquid chamber is filled to capacity. A nonzero volume is necessary so that the gas pressure does not become infinite when the liquid chamber is at capacity.
Precharge pressure — Gas chamber pressure
1.101325 MPa (default) | positive scalar
Pressure in the gas chamber when the liquid chamber is empty.
Specific heat ratio — Specific heat ratio
1.4 (default) | positive scalar
Specific heat ratio (adiabatic index). To account for heat exchange, set it to a value normally between 1 and 2, depending on the properties of the gas in the gas chamber. For dry air at 20°C, this value is 1 for an isothermal process or 1.4 for an adiabatic (and isentropic) process.
Hard stop stiffness coefficient — Proportionality constant
1e4 MPa/m^3 (default) | positive scalar
Proportionality constant of the hard-stop contact pressure with respect to the liquid volume penetrated into the hard stop. The hard stops are used to restrict the liquid volume between zero and liquid chamber capacity.
Fluid dynamic compressibility — Fluid compressibility
On (default) |
Whether to model any change in fluid density due to fluid compressibility.
When Fluid compressibility is set to
On, changes due to the mass flow rate into
the block are calculated in addition to density changes due to changes in
pressure. In the Isothermal Liquid Library, all blocks calculate density as
a function of pressure.