Model transmission line

Elements

Use the Transmission Line block to model delayed-based, lumped, and distributed transmission lines. Mask dialog options will change automatically to accommodate model type selection.

**Model type****Ground and hide negative terminals**Select this check box to internally ground and hide the negative terminals. Clear the check box to expose the negative terminals. By exposing these terminals, you can connect them to other parts of your model.

By default, this check box is selected.

When modeling distributed transmission lines, the block first calculates ABCD-parameters at a set of internal frequencies. The ABCD-parameters are converted S-parameters for simulation.

The block calculates the ABCD-parameters from the physical length
of the transmission line, *d*, and the complex propagation
constant, *k*, using the following set of equations:

$$\begin{array}{l}A=\frac{{e}^{kd}+{e}^{-kd}}{2}\\ B=\frac{{Z}_{0}*\left({e}^{kd}-{e}^{-kd}\right)}{2}\\ C=\frac{{e}^{kd}-{e}^{-kd}}{2*{Z}_{0}}\\ D=\frac{{e}^{kd}+{e}^{-kd}}{2}\end{array}$$

When you set the **Stub mode** parameter in
the mask dialog box to `Shunt`

, the two-port network
consists of a transmission line in series with a stub. You can terminate
the stub with a short circuit or an open circuit as shown in the following
figure.

*Z _{in}* is the input impedance
of the shunt circuit. The ABCD-parameters for the shunt stub are calculated
as

$$\begin{array}{c}A=1\\ B=0\\ C=1/{Z}_{in}\\ D=1\end{array}$$

When you set the **Stub mode** parameter in
the mask dialog box to `Series`

, the two-port network
comprises a series transmission line. You can terminate this line
with either a short circuit or an open circuit as shown here.

*Z _{in}* is the input
impedance of the series circuit. The ABCD-parameters for the series
stub are:

$$\begin{array}{c}A=1\\ B={Z}_{in}\\ C=0\\ D=1\end{array}$$

Modeling options tab is activated for all transmission line
options except `Delay-based and lossless`

, ```
Delay-based
and lossy
```

, `Lumped parameter L-section`

,
and `Lumped parameter pi-section`

.

**Modeling options**SimRF provides two different ways to model S-parameters:

Time-domain (rationalfit) technique creates an analytical rational model that approximates the whole range of the data.

Frequency-domain computes the baseband impulse response for each carrier frequency independently. This technique is based on convolution. There is an option to specify the duration of the impulse response. For more information, see Compare Time and Frequency Domain Simulation Options for S-parameters.

For the Amplifier and S-parameters blocks, the default value is

`Time domain (rationalfit)`

. For the Transmission Line block, the default value is`Frequency domain`

.

`Time domain`

**Fitting options**The fitting options are

`Share all poles`

,`Share poles by columns`

, or`Fit individually`

.For the Amplifier block, the default value is

`Fit individually`

. For the S-parameters block and Transmission Line block, the default value is`Share all poles`

.**Relative error desired (dB)**Enter the desired relative error in decibels (dB). The default value is

`-40`

.**Rational fitting results**Shows values of

**Number of independent fits**,**Number of required poles**, and**Relative error achieved (dB)**.When modeling using

`Time domain`

, the**Plot**in`Visualization`

tab plots the data defined in`Data Source`

and the values in the`rationalfit`

function.

`Frequency domain`

**Automatically estimate impulse response duration**Select

**Automatically estimate impulse response duration**to calculate impulse response duration automatically. Clear the selection to specify impulse response duration.When using

`Frequency domain`

, the**Plot**in`Visualization`

tab plots the data defined in the`Data Source`

.

**Source of frequency data**The only option for

**Source of frequency data**is`User-specified`

. To plot, specify a vector of frequencies in the**Frequency data**parameter and select units.**Plot type**Specify the type of plot that you want to produce with your data. When you model using

`Frequency domain`

, Visualization tab plots only the data defined in`Data Source`

. When you model using`Time domain`

, Visualization tab plots the data defined in`Data Source`

and the`rationalfit`

values. The**Plot type**parameter provides the following options:`X-Y plane`

— Generate a Cartesian plot of your data versus frequency. To create linear, semilog, or log-log plots, set the**Y-axis scale**and**X-axis scale**accordingly.`Polar plane`

— Generate a polar plot of your data. The block plots only the range of data corresponding to the specified frequencies.`Z smith chart`

,`Y smith chart`

, and`ZY smith chart`

— Generate a Smith^{®}chart. The block plots only the range of data corresponding to the specified frequencies.

The default value is

`X-Y plane`

.**Parameter #**Specify the S-parameters to plot. From the

**Parameter1**and**Parameter2**drop-down lists, select the S-parameters that you want to plot. If you specify two parameters, the block plots both parameters in a single window.The default value for

**Parameter1**is`S11`

. For the Transmission Line block, the default value for**Parameter2**is`S22`

.**Format #**For

*X-Y*plots, format the units of the parameters to plot from the**Format1**and**Format2**drop-down lists. For polar plots and Smith charts, the formats are set automatically.The default value is

`Magnitude (decibels)`

.**Y-axis scale**Scale for the

*Y*-axis.The default value is

`Linear`

.**X-axis scale**Scale for the

*X*-axis.The default value is

`Linear`

.

In general, blocks that model delay effects rely on signal history.
You can minimize numerical error that occur due to a lack of signal
history at the start of a simulation. To do so, in the Configuration
Parameters dialog box Solver pane you can specify an **Initial
step size**. For models with delay-based Transmission
Line blocks, use an initial step size that is less than the
value of the **Delay** parameter.

The example, Transmission Lines, Delay-based and Lumped Models,
shows how to use `Delay-based`

and `Lumped`

Transmission
Line blocks.

[1] Sussman-Fort, S. E., and J. C. Hantgan.
"SPICE Implementation of Lossy Transmission Line and Schottky
Diode Models." *IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory
and Techniques*.Vol. 36, No.1, January 1988.

[2] Pozar, David M. *Microwave Engineering*.
Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.

[3] Gupta, K. C., Ramesh Garg, Inder Bahl, and
Prakash Bhartia. *Microstrip Lines and Slotlines*,
2nd Edition, Norwood, MA: Artech House, Inc., 1996.

[4] Ludwig, Reinhold and Pavel Bretchko. *RF
Circuit Design: Theory and Applications*. Englewood Cliffs:
NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2000.

[5] True, Kenneth M. "Data Transmission
Lines and Their Characteristics." *National Semiconductor
Application Note 806*, April 1992.

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