Digital images are prone to a variety of types of noise. Noise is the result of errors in the image acquisition process that result in pixel values that do not reflect the true intensities of the real scene. There are several ways that noise can be introduced into an image, depending on how the image is created. For example:
If the image is scanned from a photograph made on film, the film grain is a source of noise. Noise can also be the result of damage to the film, or be introduced by the scanner itself.
If the image is acquired directly in a digital format, the mechanism for gathering the data (such as a CCD detector) can introduce noise.
Electronic transmission of image data can introduce noise.
To simulate the effects of some of the problems listed above,
the toolbox provides the
which you can use to add various types of noise
to an image. The examples in this section use this function.
You can use linear filtering to remove certain types of noise. Certain filters, such as averaging or Gaussian filters, are appropriate for this purpose. For example, an averaging filter is useful for removing grain noise from a photograph. Because each pixel gets set to the average of the pixels in its neighborhood, local variations caused by grain are reduced.
This example shows how to remove salt
and pepper noise from an image using an averaging filter
and a median filter (
medfilt2) to allow comparison
of the results. Median filtering is similar to an averaging filter,
in that each output pixel is set to an average of the pixel values
in the neighborhood of the corresponding input pixel. However, with
median filtering, the value of an output pixel is determined by the median of
the neighborhood pixels, rather than the mean. The median is much
less sensitive than the mean to extreme values (called outliers).
Median filtering is therefore better able to remove these outliers
without reducing the sharpness of the image. Median filtering is a
specific case of order-statistic filtering, also
known as rank filtering. For information about
order-statistic filtering, see the reference page for the
Read image and display it.
I = imread('eight.tif'); imshow(I)
For this example, add salt and pepper noise to the image. This type of noise consists of random pixels being set to black or white (the extremes of the data range).
J = imnoise(I,'salt & pepper',0.02); figure, imshow(J)
Filter the noisy image with an averaging filter and display the results. The example uses a 3-by-3 neighborhood.
K = filter2(fspecial('average',3),J)/255; figure, imshow(K)
Now use a median filter to filter the noisy image and
display the results. The example uses a 3-by-3 neighborhood. Notice
medfilt2 does a better job of removing noise,
with less blurring of edges.
L = medfilt2(J,[3 3]); figure, imshow(L)
applies a Wiener filter (a type of linear filter) to an image adaptively, tailoring
itself to the local image variance. Where the variance is large,
little smoothing. Where the variance is small,
This approach often produces better results than linear filtering.
The adaptive filter is more selective than a comparable linear filter,
preserving edges and other high-frequency parts of an image. In addition,
there are no design tasks; the
handles all preliminary computations and implements the filter for
an input image.
wiener2, however, does require
more computation time than linear filtering.
wiener2 works best when the noise is constant-power
("white") additive noise, such as Gaussian noise. The
example below applies
wiener2 to an image of Saturn
that has had Gaussian noise added.
Read in an image. Because the image is a truecolor image, the example converts it to grayscale.
RGB = imread('saturn.png'); I = rgb2gray(RGB);
The example then add Gaussian noise to the image and then displays the image. Because the image is quite large, the figure only shows a portion of the image.
J = imnoise(I,'gaussian',0,0.025); imshow(J)
Portion of the Image with Added Gaussian Noise
Remove the noise, using the
Again, the figure only shows a portion of the image
K = wiener2(J,[5 5]); figure, imshow(K)
Portion of the Image with Noise Removed by Wiener Filter